On the basis of the trading books from the establishments, the chief accountant made up both the generaal journaal general journal and the generaal grootboek general ledger , copies of which were forwarded to the chambers of Amsterdam and Zeeland.
The Dutch group additionally included people considered undesirable or degenerate. In we went to Canada for a wedding and to visit old friends, and I took the opportunity to visit the wonderful Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia, where I took many photographs of the items on exhibit, particularly of the superb display of artefacts of the First Nations of the Pacific Northwest. Expanding Bar Shot Two shot halves attached together by bars that slide apart, thus increasing their length and causing dire consequences on impact. Article Citation.
01/10/ · The Batavia was a VOC ship on her maiden from Texel in the Netherlands, to Batavia (Jakarta), Indonesia. She left Texel on 27th October with a cargo consisting of silver specie, and notably the sandstone blocks required to build a portico at the entrance of the city of Batavia.
The VOC thereafter operated primarily from this eastern base which they named Batavia after the Batavians, a Germanic tribe that led a revolt against the Romans in 69 C.E. By selecting this name, the Dutch claimed a kind of ancestral ownership of the island, and the governor-general (the highest-ranking officer), ruled Batavia as …
TANAP - VOC / Batavia as administrative centre
Batavia as Administrative Centre. F.S. Gaastra. ll the VOC establishments in Asia (thus including that at the Cape of Good Hope) were subject to the Governor-General and Council in Batavia. At the same time Batavia was the most important and, for a while during the seventeenth century, the only harbour of arrival and departure for ships to and from Europe.
Batavia as Administrative Centre. F.S. Gaastra. ll the VOC establishments in Asia (thus including that at the Cape of Good Hope) were subject to the Governor-General and Council in Batavia. At the same time Batavia was the important and, for a while during the seventeenth century, the only harbour of arrival and departure for ships to and from Europe.
The city is divided into four bands by the canals, and each of these is divided into square blocks of equal size, arranged in bands three deep.
An axis perpendicular to the main canal divides the city in half vertically, and along this axis are spaces and buildings necessary to the function of the city: markets, city hall, the exchange, a church, and the royal palace.
This vertical division of public buildings and the horizontal division of the main canal divide the city into four quadrants, each of which has its own specialized market in line with the main market or exchange, and its own church adjoining the canal.
This subdivision suggests that the citizens could be organized into four groups with equal access to public buildings, or that it could be divided into equal-sized groups by religious affiliation. The standardized blocks throughout the city convey a sense of fair and democratic division of building parcels of equal value, but a further look reveals a hierarchy at work.
The blocks along the canals are of higher value because of their easier access to transportation and to the pleasant views of the canals. The blocks closer to the central vertical axis have a privileged proximity to public buildings. The double band of blocks at top and bottom of the plan has no access to canals. These are in a position semihidden from the open exchange square, yet are still centrally located and able to be surveilled from the town hall. His plan encourages residents to trade goods, defend themselves from outsiders, and, above all, develop a social hierarchy.
A grid conceals hierarchy through its apparent egalitarianism; it retains the appearance of a uniform division of space that upon further examination proves otherwise. The following discussion of the grid, both in the Netherlands and in general, demonstrates the inherent hierarchies of this form, despite arguments that it is merely practical or rational or, indeed, egalitarian. These and related explanations exclude the inherent hierarchy of the grid.
Van den Heuvel notes a further source of the Dutch grid, which also derives from Stevin, but from a different text than the ideal plan. Stevin provided instructions for establishing military camps in his Castrametatio , published in The way these elements were to be arranged demonstrates that this project was essentially hierarchical. The central position is assigned first, to the highest-ranking officers, and then the rest of the units are arranged around them.
The consistent use of gridded divisions in different types of Dutch planning indicates a general Dutch impulse to use the grid as a means for creating and dividing land, which perhaps cannot be traced to a specific source. Grid plans have been identified by some scholars with Dutch egalitarianism and pragmatism, as the Dutch preferred a simple grid to the baroque diagonals created in other European cities in the period. Hannah B. The hierarchies of Dutch city planning can be found in the Dutch Republic as well; it is not solely a concern of the colonial city, military encampments, or of Simon Stevin.
The third expansion of Amsterdam, begun in , demonstrates this. The extension was physically shaped by the existing city, which it wrapped around. The Dutch planning principles outlined above can be seen to some degree in this section of the city: water control through canals and locks, gridded division of space, emphasis on the efficiency of transportation, and the distribution of public buildings.
Following this, the emperor and then the prince, out of the expected order, seem to reflect less concern for strict ranking. However, all three canals were prestigious addresses, and the differences between them were negligible. The Jordaan, now a quiet residential area, was historically the working-class quarter of the city. It is morphologically differentiated from the canal belt by the orientation of its grid, with streets and canals at a forty-five degree angle to those of the canal belt.
By leaving the illegal buildings in place, the city of Amsterdam avoided the expensive project of reorganizing the urban infrastructure and also avoided the social and political conflicts that would result from destroying the illegal settlements. The hierarchies apparent in these examples are essential for understanding Dutch seventeenth-century urban planning, especially as it extends to Batavia.
Visual associations between these plans may have even contributed to the idea that Batavia manifested similar ideals. A consideration of the map see fig. As the capital city of the VOC, Batavia represented the aspirations of the trading company and formed in many ways the face of the Dutch in the East. Founded two decades after the VOC began trading in the archipelago, Batavia was not built in haste, but rather carefully planned and plotted so that it could function as the eastern capital.
They also underscore the stronger hierarchies present in this colonial city. Stevin made some provision for his four quadrants to differ in religious affiliation, yet maintain equal access to the public buildings of the city. It was flanked by rows of trees seen in fig. Skilled workers labored along the eastern wall, and residential architecture was built throughout the city.
The canals in both his ideal plan and the plan for Batavia provided a means of transportation, but in many sections of Batavia they were unbridged and thus became an obstacle to land transportation. The main canal is only bridged at one point on the map, effectively isolating the east and west halves of the city from one another.
For obvious reasons this bridge did not appear on the map on which the map was based, but it also is not indicated on the map—a clear sign that the later map is a close copy of the earlier version.
As the main canal was the widest, having to accommodate larger boats, this lack of bridges is somewhat understandable. Nevertheless, this rendered the canal a major barrier to movement on foot or horseback or in a carriage.
The location of smaller bridges shows that the city was effectively divided further into quarters—the fort was isolated in the eastern half, and the western half of the city was divided roughly in two by the Maleidschegracht, which was only bridged at its eastern and western edges. The walls of the city constituted a further barrier to some segments of the Batavian population. Initially meant as protection from competing sea powers and indigenous armies, they evolved into protection from perceived internal threats.
Two populations that were indispensable to the functioning of the city, the Chinese and the enslaved, were designated as potentially harmful and thus relocated outside of these walls. The population of Batavia was distributed throughout the city so that each ethnic group had its own district.
As a newly built city, Batavia represented the ideals of Dutch seventeenth-century planning, when not constrained by the existence of previous infrastructure. Yet it is important to note that the Dutch hierarchy is distinguished by its concealed nature: the social structure within the city was subtly structured by barriers to movement. These barriers were porous; one could reach any desired quarter of the city.
Nevertheless, these barriers made certain routes and destinations less convenient, thereby shaping the way residents used the city. What separates Dutch planning in the Republic from that in the colony is only the degree, not the presence, of hierarchy.
This un-Dutch ostentation calls for a closer look at the social hierarchies of this city and their cause. Considered through the lens of the colonial situation, hierarchy is anticipated, but a closer look at Batavia in the context of seventeenth-century Dutch planning ultimately reveals that colonial Batavia enacted the same principles as did planning in the Dutch Republic. On the other hand, Batavia dispersed the remaining population into distinct quarters that were separated by unbridged canals and barrier-forming walls.
Anthony King argues in his study of colonial Delhi that division between populations is inherent to a colonial city, between a dominant and subordinate culture, the colonizer and colonized. An overt exercise of hierarchy and population control was rarely seen in Batavia or in the Dutch Republic, but a concealed hierarchy enforced by the built environment was intentional and very Dutch.
The trade networks of the archipelago had functioned to establish a strikingly diverse population in the trading ports of the region. In the ports they were joined by Portuguese, Dutch, and English merchants, to name but a few of the groups present in the area when Batavia was established.
Javanese and other islanders, Chinese, Indian, and non-Dutch Europeans, made up the vast majority of the population of Batavia. A survey showed some 27, people living within the city walls, of which approximately 2, were Dutch, were Eurasian, 2, were Chinese, 5, were of Indian descent, 3, were from Java and the rest of the archipelago, and 13, were slaves of unnamed origin.
Among the ten percent of the population that was considered Dutch in this survey there remained a great deal of diversity of origin and social status. No non-Dutch Europeans are included as residents according to this survey, which does not reflect the actual situation—these were likely folded into the Dutch group.
Looking at the nationalities of a group of VOC soldiers gives us some insight into the ethnic make-up of this ten-percent Dutch population. In , of soldiers in Batavia, only 57 were Dutch, while the remaining sixty percent were German, Swiss, English, Scottish, Danish, Flemish, Walloon, and of unknown nationality.
The Dutch group additionally included people considered undesirable or degenerate. Sailors and soldiers, who had a very low status in Dutch accounts of the period, made up a large portion of this group.
The apparent laxity in what constituted Dutch ethnicity—one did not need to speak Dutch, need never have resided in or visited the Netherlands, in fact required no distinct ties to the Republic—contrasts with the divisions enforced upon the Asian and enslaved populations. The location of the various ethnic groups of Batavia in the city shows the role of the built environment in maintaining divisions between the non-Dutch residents of the city.
De Haan describes historic Batavia in minute detail in this work published in celebration of the three-hundred-year anniversary of the founding of Batavia. Within chapters describing the founding of the city, the streets and walls, the different ethnic groups, and even the furniture of Batavia, De Haan inadvertently also describes the separation of the people of the city into distinct quarters.
Moors lived and worked to the north of the Leeuwinnengracht. Wealthy residents chose open tree-lined canals. Yet, for residents within the walls, the barriers and divisions were porous. Beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, as the canals silted up and grew stinky and diseased, the wealthy Europeans moved north of the city environs, building villas rather than townhouses.
The historic city core became a place for low-income residents who could not afford the healthier countryside. The result was a further separation within the social hierarchy of Batavia. Changes in the city between its initial completion and the late eighteenth century are apparent by comparing the maps of and , representing two thorough land surveys see figs. The enslaved and Chinese populations were consolidated outside of the city walls, to the south, in sections isolated by canals and very few bridges, and separated from the city center by the wall.
This allowed mobility within the city to become slightly freer. An interesting change, relevant to the sumptuary laws, is the expansion of the parade ground between the city and the fort, and the plaza in front of the town hall Stadhuis , built —10 in the southeast quarter.
City ordinances of and regulating modes of transportation and procession underscore the importance of parading through space as a way for Batavians to express themselves, regardless of whether it was appropriate to their rank.
The Chinese Massacre of was a crucial exception. Some Chinese merchants rose to high positions, living among the European wealthy on the fashionable canals. In , select Chinese citizens were accorded the right to walk with a parasol-bearing servant, suggesting that class distinctions similar to those among the Dutch Batavians had developed. But after , they were forced into a homogenized ethnic neighborhood, separated from the rest of the city by a wall and canal.
The household slaves generally lived behind the house of the master. Housed in the fort, they were kept in chains and did heavy manual labor, much of it dangerous, like the digging and dredging of canals. Kulis unskilled laborers owned by citizens of Batavia lived in the slave quarter south of the city walls, where they were later joined by the skilled laborers.
In , the chained slaves were also moved to the slave quarter, when this became a quarter for all types of slaves, and the divisions among their laboring status became blurred. This also ensured that a fortified wall stood between the slaves and the fashionable Tijgersgracht. After heading north from the slave quarter, he would have crossed a drawbridge and passed through the Nieuwe Poort New Gate see fig.
Crossing a bridge over a canal, he would then have headed east toward the workshops, staying off the sidewalks that were forbidden to him, which further shaped his experience of the city plan.
He would have retraced this path at the end of the workday, when the gate and drawbridge were closed behind him, protecting the city residents from any threat of slave revolt.
Rather than evoking feelings of connections to the Dutch Republic, the canals for this slave would have been a barrier to movement, directing his path to and from work and residence. Social divisions between ethnic groups contributed to the sense of separation of both free and enslaved groups. The VOC promoted ethnic divisions among slaves to secure the city against slave uprisings.
Despite their shared living area after , the slaves remained divided by origin, religion, and status. Ethnic divisions were maintained among the slaves in large part because of European perceptions of the specific skills of each group and the relative risks presented by a particular group. Certain groups were prohibited because of a perception that they were dangerous: male slaves from Bali were avoided because of their tendency to run amok.
The VOC also issued ordinances about who might own a slave and which religion that slave might practice. Not surprisingly, those ordinances served to maintain a hierarchy among slave owners, with Dutch Christians at the top. This was a locally derived practice, in which each ethnic group controlled its own neighborhood, led by an officer chosen from among the population.
While empowering a group to partially self-govern, in effect this kept people from interacting or transferring among groups, by maintaining linguistic and ethnic divisions between populations.
The attempt by this group to demonstrate their dominance over others led to assertions of superiority within the allegedly cohesive Dutch group. Some manifestations of this hierarchy, such as the parasol, appear to have been adopted from the local population.
However, only some specifics of this behavior can be attributed to local customs, for the preoccupation with hierarchy was utterly Dutch. At home, too, wealthy merchants expressed their higher social position by wearing costly dress, albeit in sober and unadorned black, ostensibly to demonstrate their lack of concern with that status. Marsely Kehoe is currently Mellon Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Art History and Archeology at Columbia University. She is preparing a manuscript on the global legacy of the Dutch golden age.
I would like to thank Anna Andrzejewski, Jill Casid, Jane Hutchison, Preeti Chopra, Jolanda Vanderwal Taylor, and Arijit Sen, who advised me on this topic in its beginnings as a dissertation chapter. I would additionally like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers at JHNA, as well as Julie Hochstrasser, whose comments were indispensible in shaping the final form of this article.
Melissa Mednicov and Mike Lorr also provided invaluable advice on this manuscript. Jacobus Anne van der Chijs, Nederlandsch-Indisch Plakaatboek Batavia: Landsdrukkerij, — , The sumptuary codes were established by decree of the governor general, in many cases in response to complaints from the Heeren XVII advisory board, headquartered in the Republic of the Dutch East India Company; they have been compiled, along with all other decrees of the governor and his council, in multiple volumes of the Plakaatboek.
Van der Chijs, Plakaatboek , —38; It should be noted that sumptuary laws were rarely imposed in the Dutch Republic. Kees Zandvliet discusses the identification of the figures, and possible alternatives. Kees Zandvliet, ed. All the figures have been identified, even the servants, see Zandvliet, Dutch Encounter , — Van der Chijs, Plakaatboek , — Jean Gelman Taylor, The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, , The sumptuary laws were revoked in with the dissolution of the VOC, in order to abolish demonstrations of rank Van der Chijs, Plakaatboek , — On these laws, see also Susan Abeyasekere, Jakarta: A History , 2nd ed.
Jaynie Anderson Carlton, Australia: Miegunyah Press, , — On Indonesian social behaviors of dominance, see Webb Keane, Signs of Recognition: Powers and Hazards of Representation in an Indonesian Society Berkeley: University of California Press, See Homi K. Russell Ferguson et al. Cambridge, Mass. On how the rhetoric of the colonial powers furthered this reputation, see Benjamin Schmidt, Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , and Margaret R.
Greer, Walter D. Mignolo, and Maureen Quilligan, eds. Swati Chattopadhyay, Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny London: Routledge, ; and Brenda S. Yeoh, Contesting Space: Power Relations and the Urban Built Environment in Colonial Singapore Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, The authority on the early Dutch Republic is Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall — Oxford: Clarendon Press, ; for an introduction to Dutch as traders, see C.
Boxer, The Dutch Seaborne Empire — New York: Penguin Books, On the Spice Island trade, see Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce —, 2 vols. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between and about The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, For a reorientation of the Western account of this trade, see Robert Markley, The Far East and the English Imagination, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , which despite the title, includes other European powers, especially the Dutch.
Jacobs, In Pursuit of Pepper and Tea: The Story of the Dutch East India Company Zutphen: Walberg Pers, , 7—12; and on Houtman, see Julie Berger Hochstrasser, Still Life and Trade in the Dutch Golden Age New Haven: Yale University Press, , —2, and n Hochstrasser, Still Life , ; she also describes other atrocities committed by the Dutch. This reference, 4—5. The oddly fortuitous series of events is detailed in Abeyasekere, Jakarta , 11— Israel, The Dutch Republic , Joep Leerssen, National Thought in Europe: A Cultural History Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, , 39ff.
It is interesting to note that the sumptuary laws became necessary after the city and the VOC began their slow decline. Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude specifically identify as the turning point after which profits slow: Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , ff; Els M.
Jacobs shows that the VOC was too inflexible to accommodate these changes in supply and demand. Els M. Because of new saltwater ponds established along the shore of Batavia, a strain of malaria began affecting new arrivals in the city; the mortality of VOC employees increased from six percent within the first year of arrival to fifty percent beginning in This incredible strain on the employees of the VOC meant that the company dramatically increased the number of employees they recruited and sent to the East.
This cost the VOC terribly and destroyed the profitability of the company in the eighteenth century. Peter H. Kees Grijns and Peter J. Nas Leiden: KITLV Press, , 43— Accessed September 2, Linda M. A comparison to the contemporary Dutch colonial city of New Amsterdam New York shows a distinct difference in levels of planning: New Amsterdam developed organically, not following a grid, while Batavia was planned from its inception.
Higgins, The Grid Book Cambridge, Mass. Abeyasekere, Jakarta , Robert J. Ross and Gerard J. The map illustrated here was published in , after being redrafted in by copying the version. Both the and versions exist in multiple copies, published throughout the following centuries. This map was produced directly after the establishment of the sumptuary laws outlawing the wearing of jewels or golden costume refinements for all but the highest-ranking VOC officials. In , Batavia was lost to England and was ruled until by British Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, the founder of Singapore.
He oversaw the building of a large English-style green south of Batavia, which shaped the suburb, Weltevreden, that grew up around it, resulting in the city having a different urban footprint than Dutch Batavia. Spiro Kostof, The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History London: Thames and Hudson, , , points out the usefulness of clear connections between the bastions and the roads or supply routes.
On Dutch buildings in Batavia and across their global empire, see C. Temminck Groll, ed. Dell Upton and John Michael Vlach Athens: University of Georgia Press, , 3— Temminck Groll asserts that these forms must derive locally. Temminck Groll, Dutch Overseas , I have argued elsewhere that some of the Dutch-style buildings in the background of city views in this volume were added by the Amsterdam-based engravers of the drawings provided by Nieuhof, as a kind of architectural staffage that stands in for Dutch building types.
Like Dutch colonial cities, Spanish colonial cities were usually built on a rectangular grid, but they did not incorporate waterways and were less concerned with enabling trade through careful connections to the harbor. On the Laws of the Indies, see Valerie Fraser, The Architecture of Conquest: Building in the Viceroyalty of Peru — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ; and Dora P. Crouch, Daniel J. Garr, and Axel I. Mundigo, Spanish City Planning in North America Cambridge: MIT Press, Lombaerde and C.
Ron van Oers, Dutch Town Planning Overseas During VOC and WIC Rule — Zutphen, Walberg Pers, , 10— Simon Stevin, Materiae Politicae. I consulted the copy held in the Newberry Library, Chicago. Ernst Crone and trans. Dikshoorn Amsterdam: C. Gardner Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Kostof, City Shaped , ff. See F. Van Oers points out four specifically Dutch features of this plan: the integrative role of water, the centrality of trade rather than the royal house, the attention to social and public functions, and religious tolerance as shown by the five church plots the central one would belong to the state religion, but the other four could be purposed as befitted the population.
Van Oers, Dutch Town Planning, 81— Van Oers, Dutch Town Planning , 83n Hierarchy is an aspect that Ron van Oers downplays in his analysis, including it as a subargument to his larger point about the importance of water control for this city. Van Oers, Dutch Town Planning , On surveillance and the built environment, see Anna Vemer Andrzejewski, Building Power: Architecture and Surveillance in Victorian America Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, , chapter 1.
He argues further that the primary concern of the grid in its military application is flexibility in relation to the landscape and the temporality of the arrangement, which is useful for understanding the development of colonial cities. Simon Stevin, Castrametatio. Dat is Legermeting Rotterdam: J. Spiro Kostof criticizes E. Accessed December 20, Higgins, Grid , Dell Upton, Another City: Urban Life and Urban Spaces in the New American Republic New Haven: Yale University Press, , chapter 6, esp.
Dell Upton, Another City , Jaap Evert Abrahamse, De Grote Uitleg van Amsterdam: Stadsontwikkeling in de zeventiende eeuw Bussum: Thoth, Fred Feddes, A Millennium of Amsterdam: Spatial History of a Marvellous City Bussum: Thoth, , 86; and Abrahamse, De Grote Uitleg , 75—77 and Anthony D.
Yeoh, Contesting Space , 2, expands on this binary population division. Abeyasekere, Jakarta , 19— Frederick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler Berkeley: University of California Press, , — When a Dutch man married an Asian woman legally, she and their children became Dutch citizens, though they were restricted from relocating to the Dutch Republic. Taylor, Social World , Also note that despite the divisions introduced in the Asian populations of the city, Dutchmen drew their wives from all different quarters.
Cooper and Stoler, — Jan Breman et al. Boxer, Dutch Seaborne Empire , Abeyasekere, Jakarta , 20; For the social status of soldiers and sailors, see A.
Maarten Ultee Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , 21—31, — Abeyesekere, Jakarta , Taylor also provides a number of anecdotes about the undesirables in the Dutch population: Taylor, Social World , chapter 2. Indeed, many Dutch Batavians attained wealth only by violating the VOC monopoly, essentially, smuggling, so the financial support for ostentatious behavior was also gained by violating established Dutch custom.
On smuggling, see Taylor, Social World , This designation appears to refer to the Malabar Coast of India, and this group had come to Batavia through Portuguese enslavement by way of Malacca.
Anthony Reid St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, , De Haan, Oud Batavia , De Haan, Oud Batavia , — De Haan, Oud Batavia , , De Haan, Oud Batavia , 1: , On the regulations, see Van der Chijs, Plakaatboek , —37; for the regulations, Plakaatboek , — In the legislation following the massacre, it is clear that the government of Batavia feared violence from the Chinese.
The law of Nov. This is labeled as such on many maps, as can be seen in Figure 7. European slavery in Asia is rarely discussed, in large part because it is perceived to be a less extreme and encompassing enslavement than the Atlantic slave trade. Pieter C. For the locations of the slaves, see De Haan, Oud Batavia , , — The dredging of silted canals claimed the lives of 16, of these chained workers, as they performed the labor of making the city Dutch with its ill-fated canals, doubly reinforcing their own low status.
Slaves were also required to walk alongside horses that they were transporting, rather than riding them. For example, slaves from Malacca were perceived to be excellent craftsmen, and slaves from Africa were thought of as strong miners. Abeyasekere, Susan. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, Jakarta: A History. Abrahamse, Jaap Evert. De Grote Uitleg van Amsterdam: Stadsontwikkeling in de zeventiende eeuw. Bussum: Thoth, Andrzejewski, Anna Vemer. Building Power: Architecture and Surveillance in Victorian America.
Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, Bhabha, Homi K. Bhabha, Homi. Berkeley: University of California Press, The copper sheet was nailed to a wooden block on a long handle. The diameter of mm corresponds exactly with the 11 mark on the gunner's tally stick, so shot passing through the gauge would be less than 11 pont in weight.
Copper powder canister. Used for carrying the cannon cartridge from the gunpowder magazine usually at the bottom of the ship to the gun itself. This protected the cartridge from accidental ignition. Copper measure, used for measuring gunpowder. The measure was dipped into a gunpowder barrel and filled to the top, thus indicating a known weight or measure. This brass Patch Box held greased fabric patches which were placed around musket balls before loading into firearms. Stoneware Beardman Jugs Many styles of saltglaze stoneware jugs from various parts of Germany and Belgium have been recovered from the Dutch East Indiamen Batavia , Verguide Draeck , Zuytdorp , and Zeewijk The popularly known Beardmen Bartmannkrug , or 'Bellarmine' jugs were principally manufactured in Frechen, near the German city of Cologne Köln.
Situated on the River Rhine, Cologne was a major trading centre for these wares. The jugs were sturdy and suitable for storing or decanting various liquids - wine, vinegar etc - or even as containers for mercury. Batavia Bell. This bronze bell may have been the watch bell that was on the poop deck. It was found near the stern of the ship. Catalog: BAT Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Bronze Astrolabe recovered from the Batavia Catalog: BAT Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia.
Semicircular bronze Astrolabe recovered from the Batavia. Catalog: BAT , on loan from Max Cramer Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Personal items from the Batavia, clockwise from top left: Buckles. Catalog: BAT A,B,C,D Hooks for garments. Catalog: BAT C Double sided comb used to 'clean and beautify' the hair. The fine teeth, which are now missing, were used to rid the hair of nits or lice, the wide teeth for grooming.
Items from the Batavia. Catalog: BAT right This decorated wooden handle was probably part of a lace bobbin. Item from the Batavia. Lace iron or linen smoother. Solid spheres of glass were the forerunners of flatirons. They were used cold or slightly heated to press pleats into the lace on collars and cuffs worn by men and women. Wooden pulley block, single sheave. Catalog: BAT Piece of rope. Catalog: Iron keel staple.
Catalog: Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. These coins are from the wreck of the Batavia - a mixture of Rijksdaalders Realm dollars of the United and Spanish Netherlands and a wide variety of Thalers from the Germanic States. Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. The rijksdaalder was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt.
Featuring an armoured half bust of William the Silent, the rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard — grains of. Friesland, Gelderland, Holland, Kampen, Overijssel, Utrecht, West Friesland, Zeeland, and Zwolle minted armoured half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century. The 17th century rijksdaalder was set to be equal to from 48 to 50 stuivers the Dutch equivalent of shillings and circulated along with silver florins 28 stuivers , daalders 30 strivers , leeuwendaalders 36 to 42 strivers , silver ducats 48 stuivers , and ducatons 60 stuivers.
While leeuwendaalders lion dollars were made of less pure silver at Photo: Don Hitchcock Source: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia Text: Wikipedia. Brass dividers BAT and BAT Brass protractor BAT This brass protractor is not on the VOC list of equipment. The units on the base and movable arm are Before the 19th century, a wide variety of different weights and measures were used by the various Dutch towns and provinces.
Despite the country's small size, there was a lack of uniformity. During the Dutch Golden Age, these weights and measures accompanied the Dutch to the farthest corners of their colonial empire, including South Africa, New Amsterdam and the Dutch East Indies.
In , de Gelder measured the copy of the Rijnland foot in the Leiden observatory to be 0. This reconstruction represents a section of the hull of the Batavia at the stern. Over this a protective coat made of resin, oil, sulphur, and lime was applied. The coating and the sheeting were to protect the planking from shipworm. The main planking consists of two layers of oak, each about 70 mm thick.
Between the plank layers and under the sheathing were layers of tar mixed with animal hair. Fibre or hair caulking was hammered into the seams between planks to keep the water out. The heavy frame timbers to which the planks were fastened were carefully selected pieces of oak with natural shapes to fit the curve of the hull. Inside the frames was another thin layer of pine planking called the 'ceiling' in a ship. In the hold of the Batavia on its journey to the Indies, there would have been trade goods and supplies, packed like the ones in this reconstruction.
Among these were bales of fine woollen material, which the VOC traded in India, and trimmings of gold or silver lace and other fancy haberdashery. Ballast and heavy cargo items were placed low down in the hold to give the ship stability.
Over 27 tonnes of the Batavia's heavy cargo were sandstone blocks going to build the portico of the castle of Batavia, as shown here, the original blocks shown as they were to be erected at the castle.
The yellow bricks at the bottom were recovered from the Vergulde Draeck, lost in Disused cannon were sometimes used as permanent ballast. Great quantities of lead, sometimes tonnes a year were shipped to the Indies.
The rolls of lead which weighed about kg each, were another form of ballast. Slaughter Point Site, West Wallabi Island. Students from Aquinas College found many artefacts during archaeological excavations of the site at Slaughter Point, West Wallabi Island, where Wiebbe Hayes and his group made a camp. Lead sheathing, iron nails, and barrel-hoop iron from the wreck of the Batavia, and sharp pieces of coral and limestone from the island, provided useful materials for making weapons and tools to aid the group's survival.
Some of these nails have been bent as if to form fish hooks. Weapons were made from hoop-iron and nails that they bound onto sticks. Catalog: BAT , BAT , BAT , BAT , and BAT Donated by Aquinas College, Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Blunderbuss, copper. This is a type of matchlock blunderbuss used to fire flaming balls or arrows.
In sea fights they could be used to set fire to the enemy's sails and rigging. BAT Musket balls, lead. Shot of this size would have been used with muskets and pistols, indicating that the Batavia was armed with these types of firearms. BAT donated by R. All objects from the Slaughter Point Site, West Wallabi Island.
Dish, copper Catalog: BAT , donated by Mr Kennedy, Underwater Explorers Club Barrel hoop, part iron Catalog: BAT Lead sheeting. Similar sheeting was recovered from the Batavia wreck site. The Batavia survivors on West Wallabi were fortunate in having access to a relatively rich source of food, especially the native tammar wallabies.
Oysters and seals were also part of their survival diet. Molten lead fragment Catalog: BAT , donated by Aquinas College Ladle made from sheet lead Catalog: BAT A and B, donated by Aquinas College Copper strap, possibly from a pot. Catalog: BAT , donated by R. Robertson Copper wedge with cut edges Catalog: BAT , donated by R. Robertson Lead folded strip with notches Catalog: BAT A, donated by R.
Robertson Piece of lead sheet Catalog: BAT , donated by Aquinas College Lead chisel shaped object Catalog: BAT B, donated by R. Robertson Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. This human skull is from a male aged between 21 and There is a section of bone missing from the side, and other sever cut marks to the back of the skull. These were produced by a heavy, sharp bladed instrument, probably a sword. The attack was definitely fatal.
The skull was recovered from 'Batavia's graveyard' Beacon Island in by Hugh Edwards and Ron Taylor. The sliver of bone was found in the gravesite and is the missing section from the skull.
Catalog: BAT A Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Beardman jug from the Batavia. Salt glazed stoneware. Catalog: unknown, possibly BAT Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Westervald jug from the Batavia. Typical of the highly ornate style of jugs produced in the Westerwald. Catalog: unknown Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Copper powder measure with the Roman numerals VII scratched on the handle and the front lip.
It has a volume of 3. Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Breech loading swivel gun, with cipher of the Dutch East India Company VOC R. Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Two glass wine bottles, and a glass case bottle.
The case bottle would have held dutch gin, and was designed to fit snugly and securely in groups of 4 to 12 in a rectangular wooden case, with the minimum of wasted space.
They were usually made with sides tapering slightly from the top to the bottom. Catalog, clockwise from the lower right: glass wine bottle ZW , glass wine bottle ZW , case bottle ZW Sheaves were usually made of lignum vitae, a strong dense wood. Many sheaves were fitted with bronze fittings for extra strength. Wood with brass bearing. Catalog: ZW right Catalog: ZW , Broadhurst Collection Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia.
Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Knife blade, in two pieces. Catalog: Iron, ZW Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia.
Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Scissor handles. Catalog: Brass, ZW B, ZW Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Clay pipes.
Catalog: ZW A-F Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Wall hooks. Catalog: cast brass, ZW A-B Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Wine glass, base and stem.
Catalog: ZW Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Dutch East Indian Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Brass buckles. Dutch East Indian Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Brass charcoal tongs.
Charcoal is preferred over wood as a cooking fuel in many parts of the world because it does not produce smoke, is easier to transport and ready to use in a convenient dry and broken up form.
It produces nearly twice the energy for a given weight of fuel than wood. For these reasons it was an ideal fuel for the galley of a sailing ship. Dutch East Indian Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Brass tobacco box lid marked 'Leyden'.
Now spelt Leiden, it is a University city about forty kilometres south west of Amsterdam, and was an important port and the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam, during the 'golden age' of Dutch colonialism. However by the time of the wreck of the Zeewijk, it had declined somewhat in importance. Catalog: ZW Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia Additional text: Wikipedia.
Dutch East Indian Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Rush lamp Catalog: unknown Photo: Don Hitchcock Source and text: Museum of Geraldton, Western Australia. Dutch East Indian Zeewijk, wrecked on the Abrolhos on June 9th, Butt plate from pistol.
Anchors have gone through a long period of improvement over the years. Modern anchors look quite different to these. Photo: Don Hitchcock April Source: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia. The Edam model here was a typical 17th century warship, similar to the Batavia, and gives an idea of the sheer size of the Batavia. Probably built about years ago, the model is an authentic representation of the Dutch frigate Edam , Amsterdam Admiralty, built in , guns, captured by the English in and incorporated into the Royal Navy as the Black Bull , retaken by the Dutch in On the taffrail are the arms of the City of Edam: a black bull below three stars within an oval wreath.
On the rail above are the Arms of the City of Amsterdam; on the counter are two shields, the arms of Prince Frederick Hendrick and the arms of the Admiralty of Amsterdam. Catalogue K Acquired through the assistance fo the Netherlands Government and Dutch community in Western Australia. Another view of the Edam model. Model of the Duyfken. In , the small Dutch vessel Duyfken made the first known voyage to Australia.
Its commander, Captain Willem Janszoon, was sent on a voyage of exploration to the Australian continent, beginning the Dutch reconnaissance that includes the voyages of Hartog, Tasman and De Vlamingh. The model was built by the late Dr Kees de Heer to give an impression of the appearance of the Duyfken. The replica of the Duyfken , built at Fremantle using traditional shipbuilding techniques, was launched on 24th January by the Duyfken Replica Foundation.
Model on loan by courtesy of Mrs K. Auel - Journeys Map of Sharamudoi Local Area for EC fans Map of Zelandonii Extended Area from Land of Painted Caves Map of the Iron Gates for Archeology students and teachers Map of the Iron Gates for Jean M. Back to Don's Maps Back to Archaeological Sites Batavia - the ship Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company VOC. It was built in Amsterdam in , and armed with 24 cast-iron cannons and a number of bronze guns. Batavia was shipwrecked on her maiden voyage, and was made famous by the subsequent mutiny and massacre that took place among the survivors.
A twentieth-century replica of the ship, also called the Batavia can be visited in Lelystad, Netherlands. Text above: Wikipedia A superb replica of the Batavia under sail. This replica was transported to Australia by barge in , and was moored at the National Maritime Museum in Sydney. In , the Batavia was the flagship for the Dutch Olympic Team during the Olympic Games.
During its stay in Australia, the ship was towed to the ocean once, where it sailed on its own. On its return to harbour after the cruise, the mast was so high that the ship had to wait for an exceptionally low tide to clear Sydney Harbour bridge, on its way to the inner harbour.
Even then, it only just got through. It was also arguably the first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies. Catalogue BAT Photo: Don Hitchcock April Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The Batavia Technical Details VOC East Indiaman Batavia Built in accordance with the decision of the Gentlemen Seventeen [i.
VOC directors] of 17 March Length between perpendiculars Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Navigational aids aboard the Batavia replica.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The bow chaser. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The bow chaser, shown looking at the muzzle. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The reconstructed wooden gun carriage of the bow chaser above.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Model of the Batavia. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Model of the Batavia. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The original timbers of the Batavia, salvaged from the Abrolhos Reef.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia This is a very useful display showing points of interest on the transom, the flat back panel of the stern of the vessel. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia These timbers are part of the Dutch East Indiamean Batavia , wrecked in the Houtman Abrolhos in Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The Batavia timbers are from the lower stern section of the hull, as shown here.
Photo: Don Hitchcock April Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The port side of the wreck. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Points of interest on the port side. Note that this photo is of the very end of the port side, on the far left of the photo above this one. Original Photo: Patrick Baker Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The timbers of the Batavia seen from above and inside the wreck, looking towards the stern.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Points of interest inside the stern. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia This No.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia This iron cannon was raised by the Western Australian Museum maritime archaeologists in Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia An experiment in gun founding - a composite cannon from the Batavia , Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia The Batavia carried 30 cannon: 22 of iron, six of bronze and two of composite construction, one of which is shown here.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Markings on the cannon show that it was owned by the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC and weighed Amsterdam pounds, about kg.
It was raised from the wreck of the Batavia by the Western Australian Museum in The cannon was damaged when the ship foundered. A small hole revealed an unusual internal structure. It was decided to cut out a long section which could be studied then replaced. How the composite cannon was made A sheet of copper for the bore of the gun was moulded to form a tube. Six flat iron bars running the length of the gun were mounted around the copper tube and fixed in place by 30 wrought iron bands ranging in thickness from 16 to 56 mm.
The gunpowder chamber in the breech was formed separately, strengthened with additional iron bands and held in place by hammering over the ends of the long iron bars. The trunnions projections on each side which supported the gun on its wooden carriage were then attached and iron pins mounted around them.
Copper sheathing was then fitted to the outside of the whole gun forming an ornamental casing. Molten lead solder was then poured into the top until all the spaces between the different metals were filled.
A copper disc was then soldered onto the end and the bronze cascabel the knob at the end screwed into place with an iron screw. This has since corroded away on the example shown here. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia This is the longest of five bronze guns recovered from the wreck, raised by the Royal Australian Navy in Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia This hemp rope is an untarred line of three strands, right hand laid, and was recovered from the wreck site.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Handle of a Sword or Sabre. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia End of a sword scabbard - made of wood wrapped with leather. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Expanding Bar Shot Two shot halves attached together by bars that slide apart, thus increasing their length and causing dire consequences on impact.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Circular lead band with four pins cast in place. I would be grateful if someone with a knowledge of old marine fittings would be able to clear this up for me - Don Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia top, right Gunner's wooden tally-stick Used to measure the size of cannon balls, and to calculate the weight of a shot of a given material and with a given diameter, necessary to decide how much powder to be used for that particular missile.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Pine tar with a thin layer of goat hair was applied to the outboard surfaces of the two layers of oak hull planking below Batavia 's waterline. Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia Iron nails from the Batavia.
Photo: Don Hitchcock October Source and text: The Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australia Museum, Fremantle, Western Australia left Iron pintle from a door.
Dutch - Batavia - Half Stuiver
Dutch - Batavia - 1644 VOC - Half Stuiver The East India Company of Batavia by a placard of 1644 August 19, it was decided to grant the Chinaman named Conjok the sole right to cast copper Half and Quarter Stuivers for use in Banda, Malacca. and Ceilon. A prohibition (despatch from Netherlands of 1644 Sept. 21) demonetized this emergency coinage in the Archipelago.Alloy: Copper
Batavia as Administrative Centre. F.S. Gaastra. ll the VOC establishments in Asia (thus including that at the Cape of Good Hope) were subject to the Governor-General and Council in Batavia. At the same time Batavia was the important and, for a while during the seventeenth century, the only harbour of arrival and departure for ships to and from Europe. 01/07/ · The built environment was an important determinant of social behavior, particularly segregation, in the colonial city of Batavia. Built in to establish a Dutch administrative and cultural headquarters in Southeast Asia for the Dutch East India Company (VOC), Batavia evinced the general principles of seventeenth-century Dutch planning back in the Netherlands, including a layout that. 20/01/ · Im dutch myself and gonna the voc and batavia organisations to find some more info. Hope u can help me with this quest Ps My english aint that good so if ur confused bout the thread i understand. Greetz, Mark , AM #2. marc .
Other wrecks on the West Australian Coast
Evenement Berlin built environment was an important determinant of social behavior, particularly segregation, in the colonial city of Batavia. To further reinforce this control, VOC administrators were eager for Dutch citizens to express a cohesive Dutch identity. Despite Scarlett Byrne Hot desire, Dutch Batavians developed ostentatious displays of rank through costume and behavior, Hale Appleman Stephanie Simbari provoked a series of Vco codes.
This preoccupation with rank among the Dutch populace signaled the same hierarchy within the social fabric of Batavia that was encoded VVoc the very form of this planned city. This parasol was meant on the one hand to protect them from the harsh tropical sunlight, and on the other to function as a status symbol, an aspect underscored by the presence of the servant. Insuch markers of status had been outlawed for all but the very highest-ranking Dutch East India Company VOC officers, namely the governor-general and his council—others could only use a parasol if holding it themselves.
High-ranking VOC officials and later observers considered this behavior very un-Dutch. The Dutch citizens of Batavia were a small group, overwhelmed by the larger Chinese, Indian, Indonesian, and enslaved populations. In order to dominate these groups, the Dutch Batavians faced contradictory demands: to appear as a cohesive and culturally Dutch group, intent, in theory, on avoiding ostentatious displays of status, yet keen Wetter Jennersdorf Landwirt exert their dominance over the other groups.
This Batsvia led in practice to showy displays of status through costume, behavior, and the accumulation of large retinues of personal slaves. Various governors-general of the Dutch East Indies introduced sumptuary codes during the company period — in Jennifer Love Hewitt Tits to regulate this behavior.
The very need for these laws, and their repetition and Webcam Bludenz, demonstrate that the Dutch Batavians were constantly violating these Vkc, acting above their status and outside of Dutch social norms. The appearance of the parasol in this commissioned portrait functioned as a Batavian marker of superiority.
A third example of a painting that defied traditional Dutch social decorum depicts senior merchant Pieter Cnoll, who in commissioned a family Vic of himself and his wife, their two daughters, and two servants fig. While some manifestations of this prestige were borrowed from the local population, the preoccupation of Dutch Batavians with social position and trappings of prestige is Voc Batavia unique to this colonial environment.
Instead, Batavia Erotikkino Siegburg the hierarchies inherent in Dutch society both at home and abroad in the seventeenth century.
Some of the performance of status as it related to local practice—like the parasol—was common in colonial societies. This desire Batvia avoid obvious signs of dominance contributed to the undeserved reputation of the Dutch in the VOC period as being just traders, not colonists, in opposition to the other European colonial powers.
The very form of Batavia, which was built following Xyz Porn seventeenth-century Dutch urban planning principals, served the interests of the VOC by arranging Batavian society into a hierarchy headed by the Dutch.
Concealed in the Dutch gridded plan are the barriers to movement that organized the Batavians into distinct ethnic groups, with varying levels of access within the city. The remainder of this paper focuses on the built environment as an important determinant of social behavior, particularly segregation, in the colonial city.
My thesis builds on the work of scholars of the colonial built environment, such as Swati Chattopadhyay and Brenda Yeoh, who elucidate the segregation of Calcutta and Singapore, respectively.
Batavia is different Vpc these two cities in that its architecture and layout in themselves enacted this segregation. In fact, the social stratification and segregation of Batavia derived in certain ways directly from its Dutch plan.
The main interest of the Batavix and Portuguese was in developing an overseas route to the East, bypassing the overland routes that were dominated by Middle Eastern merchants, in order to access cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, and pepper at the source, so Pinay Nude could cheaply supply the growing European Bataavia for Batavua spices.
The source of these spices was the aptly named the Spice Islands, now Bataviw Maluku or the Moluccas, today part of Indonesia. The Dutch Republic, newly Batvia inand having declared its independence from Spain intook the fight for independence to the theater of Batvia trade.
Not content to distribute the goods Spain and Portugal were importing to the markets of Europe, the Dutch wanted to go to the sources themselves, to beat out their European competitors. In the last decade of the sixteenth century, the Dutch made Vox strides in world navigation, beginning with the efforts of Jan Huygen van Linschoten — and Cornelis de Houtman ca. The VOC unified verenigd the earlier private efforts.
The monopoly fostered by the Dutch East India Company helped the Dutch to control the European market. The company set up Bataiva and warehouses in key locations and developed exclusive trade relationships with local merchants. In some cases VOC officers massacred or enslaved local producers, introducing Dutch settlers in their place; they destroyed spice trees growing outside of the Dutch controlled areas; and Voc Batavia employees notoriously tortured and killed twenty Bstavia East-India Company EIC traders in in Amboina to consolidate their monopoly.
The ultimate goal of the VOC was to secure a Dutch foothold in Asian trade. The founding of Batavia on the island of Java was key to the success of the VOC. This would have Mouvement Scout consequences in the region, as it would remain the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries—becoming Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, after independence.
Inthe new governor-general of the VOC, Jan Pietersz Coen —; governor-general —23 and —29chose a location and Freundschaft Tumblr a series of events that led to the establishment of the city of Batavia. Coen recognized the need for Batqvia eastern capital for the VOC, which Batava serve as an administrative center and warehouse, where goods could Batavja collected and shipped back to Europe. At this point, the VOC was not interested in acquiring territory beyond a secure location for a harbor, town, and fort.
Coen chose as his site an inhabited harbor on the northern coast of Java, one of the larger Batagia. Controlling this location allowed the Dutch to bypass the contested Strait of Malacca and to control traffic passing through the Sunda Strait. As had been discovered by Indonesians long before the arrival of Europeans, the mouth Philip R Lane the Ciliwung River, with its easy access to the inland area and a supply of fresh water, was an ideal location for a harbor.
The site already boasted a centuries-old city, Jayakarta from which Bataviaa modern city derives its namea trading center within the archipelago, inhabited by locals as well as Arab, Chinese, Portuguese, and English merchants.
Exploiting the political instabilities of the region, Coen was able to easily take over the city in May of Beginning in the s, a number of factors Voc Batavia that would cause a slow decline in the fortunes of the VOC, which ultimately resulted in Bwtavia at the close of the eighteenth century.
My analysis of the city of Vof focuses on the historic core of the city, Opa Im Swingerclub indicated in the backgrounds of figures 1 and 2. This core was established in and completed as a walled city with numerous canals by the middle of the century. While city maps Vocc data for my exploration of the form of the city, this evidence requires caution, as cartography is not simply an objective rendering of space.
That the newer map was not updated to Familystroking the change may indicate a disregard for the enslaved population.
Before the VOC gained control of the area, all VOC residences and Batqvia had been located within the previously established fort, Kasteel Batavia. An early map of shows the location and arrangement of the fort, plans for its potential expansion, and a possible city location fig. The first half of the city stretched south from the fort along the eastern bank of the river, with clearly plotted rectilinear blocks fig.
My analysis focuses on this map, multiple copies of which remain in libraries and special collections, and which is itself a close copy of a original by Clement de Jonghe: its regular reproduction in different formats and languages suggests a wide perception that this map was highly representative of Batavia. Expansion beyond the walls continued over Batacia following centuries, and in the early nineteenth century the walls and fort were demolished.
The city plan in the and maps is rectangular, divided in two longitudinally by the straightened Ciliwung River, here called the Groote Rivier Large River. These two halves are offset, apparently because of the uneven coastline and the situation of the fort.
Within the walls, the city blocks are separated by streets and canals that run on a grid, the only exception to perfect BBatavia angles being the area of the city directly Batzvia of the fort. The city wall has regular bastions and is protected by Through Jihad Meme outer canal.
The fort also has water surrounding it. The historic city Catherine Missal Wiki to have been plotted by extending the lines of the fort, so that the grid Baatavia aligned along a basically north-south axis, rather than being related to the diagonal shoreline. Founded by the VOC over the ruins of Jayakarta, Batavia was built as a Dutch colonial city, and remained under Dutch control for over three centuries.
This occurred both through the diffusion of building forms and materials and Bwtavia the imposition of Dutch city planning principles on the Southeast Asian landscape. For many Dutch Batavians, inhabiting a Dutch city in the tropics was a way to remain connected with the Republic, shoring up a Dutch collective identity. For other residents of the Baavia, it was a reminder of the dominance of the Dutch social group. The canals of Granny Stockings Tube Batavia, used for drainage, transportation, and protection, strike one Bataviw as typically Dutch.
Canals are a Dutch specialty, still present across the Netherlands today. The familiarity of the Btavia land around the port of Jayakarta likely attracted the VOC, which decided to continue the Dutch fight against water in the colonies, though not as successfully as at home. Voc Batavia Dutch canals regularly flush their contents out to the larger body of water.
Even though the climates in the Netherlands and the Indonesian archipelago differ greatly, this was not considered when Batavis city was planned—the Dutch designers mistakenly presumed their model would function throughout the world. Here, Batavia is Voc Batavia square, one corner of which is dedicated to the fort, with a roadstead enabling the passage of ships through the harbor, which by then was partially silted oVc. This much-simplified diagram of the city suggests that the draftsman recognized these traits as characteristic and essential for his representation.
While public buildings, such as the city hall Vodwere built in a stripped down neoclassical form, the vernacular architecture of the city recalled the domestic architecture of the home country. Few of these buildings remain, though some evidence exists in the form of early twentieth-century photographs fig.
As in the cities of the Republic, residential plots in Batavia were deep and not wide, with narrow street facades and step- and spout-gabled rooflines. The couple stands in Batavla of the harbor of Batavia with the city in the background.
Although Cuyp had little access to visual descriptions of the city, as the main sources had yet to be published, he nevertheless created a convincing imaginary view.
To identify this as Hairy Hd Tube, he indicated a fort at center, while at right are stock buildings—narrow two-story homes with step Batavka. This rendering of the city seems to have exaggerated the similarities of Batavia to home in order to secure it in the public imagination as Dutch. The founders of the city of Batavia intended that it should look and Vco Dutch as a means of establishing a dominant and cohesive Dutch population in a context of Dutch colonialism.
For Dutch residents, surrounded by a tropical foreignness and trading with local Javanese, Bataiva, and other European merchants in Batavia, the comforts of home were far away.
When returning from a trading voyage to Japan, a Dutch merchant could come home to Batavia, stroll Dutch streets along Dutch canals, populated by Dutch townhouses. This would go a long way toward mitigating any feelings of foreignness or alienation in his experience of the place, counteracting its settlement by a very mixed group of people, the warm humid air, and the exotic odors of the tropics.
The characteristics that were perceived as Dutch in Batavia, the canals and Vocc, fit into a larger model of seventeenth-century Dutch urban Minecraft Sex Porno, both in the Dutch Republic and its overseas settlements. The city plan also reflects the theoretical models of the mathematician and engineer Simon Stevin.
The seventeenth-century Dutch oversaw the building of new cities and the expansion of established Erotik Forum At throughout the world.
Batavia offers a prime case study for exploring the idea of control imposed by the built environment. Here was a newly built city, with a population Tantric Massage Tumblr know Voc Batavia have been strictly divided and hierarchically structured, yet the oVc fabric hid these inequalities through the Metart Gallery appearance of equal access and potential mobility throughout the Baravia.
A remarkable consistency exists among Dutch seventeenth-century urban plans, both for cities in the Dutch Republic and for overseas settlements. Remaining evidence of Batabia plans shows formal as well as ideological similarities, which suggest a shared Dutch ideology of the city, regardless of differences among individual planners and despite the absence of Vov centralized urban planning authority. In that regard, the Dutch situation contrasts with, for example, the Spanish Laws of the Batsvia, which stipulated a common framework for the arrangement and government of all Spanish colonial cities.
Wwwe Xxxxx Raben sees the form of Dutch colonial cities as indicative overall of a careful Bztavia, while Charles van Big Clit Fuck Heuvel focuses on the Dutch grid, noting its flexibility and adaptability to many landscapes.
As a new-built city, not subject to the constraints of previous infrastructure, Batavia reveals the hierarchical Astrid Posner Nackt divisions that were the goal of Dutch planning in the period.
He set out what appears to be an evenly measured and balanced city fig. Bisecting this is a series of open spaces Bxtavia important buildings, an axis of public space. Stevin elaborated on the Hot Daisy Mario square city plan, while emphasizing the Dutch elements of water control and spatial and societal order. A canal bisects this rectangular city Geile Alte Weiber Pornos and passes through the walls on either end.
A secondary rectangular canal, which echoes the shape of the city, connects to the main canal at either end just inside the walls. Vco extensive use of water is typical of many Dutch cities.
Btavia city is divided into four bands by the canals, and each of these is divided into square blocks of equal size, arranged in bands three deep.