Germany annexed Austria in , the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, and the Memel territory from Lithuania in The Nanjing Government concluded agreements with Japan and Manchukuo, authorising Japanese occupation of China and recognising the independence of Manchukuo under Japanese protection.
Normdaten Geografikum : GND : OGND , AKS. After the Italian armistice, the Italian occupation zone was taken over by the German armed forces, who remained in charge of the country until their withdrawal in autumn In June , Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time, in Venice. Simon Publications. Präsident Risto Ryti , der sein persönliches Ehrenwort für die Einhaltung des Bündnisses gegeben hatte, trat daraufhin von seinem Amt zurück.
Freundschaftsvertrag Berlin–Rom () Die Bezeichnung Achsenmächte geht auf eine Rede Benito Mussolinis am 1. November zurück, worin er von einer „Achse Berlin–Rom“ sprach, der am Oktober ein geheimer Freundschaftsvertrag zwischen Italien und dem Deutschen Reich vorausgegangen war.
19/09/2021 · Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939. The term Axis …
Rome-Berlin Axis European history Britannica
19/09/2021 · Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939. The term Axis …
19/09/ · Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in The term Axis .
The possibility of Spanish intervention in World War II was of concern to the United States, which investigated the activities of Spain's ruling Falange party in Latin America, especially Puerto Rico , where pro-Falange and pro-Franco sentiment was high, even amongst the ruling upper classes. Some countries colluded with Germany, Italy, and Japan without signing either the Anti-Comintern Pact, or the Tripartite Pact.
In some cases these bilateral agreements were formalised, in other cases it was less formal. Some of these countries were puppet states established by the Axis Powers themselves. The Japanese Army and Burma nationalists, led by Aung San , seized control of Burma from the United Kingdom during A State of Burma was formed on 1 August under the Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw. A treaty of alliance was concluded between the Ba Maw regime and Japan was signed by Ba Maw for Burma and Sawada Renzo for Japan on the same day in which the Ba Maw government pledged itself to provide the Japanese "with every necessary assistance in order to execute a successful military operation in Burma".
The Ba Maw government mobilised Burmese society during the war to support the Axis war-effort. The Ba Maw regime established the Burma Defence Army later renamed the Burma National Army , which was commanded by Aung San which fought alongside the Japanese in the Burma campaign. The Ba Maw has been described as a state having "independence without sovereignty" and as being effectively a Japanese puppet state.
As an ally of Japan during the war that deployed troops to fight on the Japanese side against Allied forces, Thailand is considered to have been part of the Axis alliance,    or at least "aligned with the Axis powers".
Thailand waged the Franco-Thai War in October to May to reclaim territory from French Indochina. Japanese forces invaded Thailand an hour and a half before the attack on Pearl Harbor because of the International Dateline, the local time was on the morning of 8 December Only hours after the invasion, Prime Minister Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram ordered the cessation of resistance against the Japanese. An outline plan of Japan-Thailand joint military operations, whereby Thai forces would invade Burma to defend the right flank of Japanese forces, was agreed on 14 December The Thai ambassador to the United States, Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj , did not deliver his copy of the declaration of war.
Therefore, although the British reciprocated by declaring war on Thailand and considered it a hostile country, the United States did not. The Thais and Japanese agreed that the Burmese Shan State and Karenni State were to be under Thai control. The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control.
On 10 May , the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's eastern Shan State, which had been claimed by Siamese kingdoms. Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the air force, engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. Kengtung , the main objective, was captured on 27 May.
Renewed offensives in June and November saw the Chinese retreat into Yunnan. In November Thailand signed the Greater East Asia Joint Declaration, formally aligning itself with the Axis Powers. The area containing the Shan States and Kayah State was annexed by Thailand in , and four northern states of Malaya were also transferred to Thailand by Japan as a reward for Thai co-operation.
These areas were ceded back to Burma and Malaya in Parallel Free Thai organizations were also established in the United Kingdom. The king's aunt, Queen Rambai Barni , was the nominal head of the British-based organization, and Pridi Banomyong , the regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within Thailand.
Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established, while American Office of Strategic Services and British Force agents slipped in and out of the country. As the war dragged on, the Thai population came to resent the Japanese presence. The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese.
After the war, U. Thailand also returned the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been annexed. Phibun and a number of his associates were put on trial on charges of having committed war crimes and of collaborating with the Axis powers.
However, the charges were dropped due to intense public pressure. Public opinion was favourable to Phibun, as he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests. In the Soviet Union considered forming an alliance with either Britain and France or with Germany. Germany was now freed from the risk of war with the Soviets, and was assured a supply of oil. This included a secret protocol whereby territories controlled by Poland , Finland , Estonia , Romania , Latvia and Lithuania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties.
On 1 September, barely a week after the pact had been signed, Germany invaded Poland. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on 17 September and on 28 September signed a secret treaty with Nazi Germany to coordinate fighting against the Polish resistance. The Soviets targeted intelligence, entrepreneurs and officers, committing a string of atrocities that culminated in the Katyn massacre and mass relocation to the Gulag in Siberia.
The Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November , which started the Winter War. The Soviet Union provided material support to Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through a pair of commercial agreements, the first in and the second in , which involved exports of raw materials phosphates , chromium and iron ore , mineral oil , grain, cotton, and rubber.
These and other export goods transported through Soviet and occupied Polish territories allowed Germany to circumvent the British naval blockade. In October and November , German-Soviet talks about the potential of joining the Axis took place in Berlin.
The German army entered Paris on 14 June , following the battle of France. He sued for peace with Germany and on 22 June , the French government concluded an armistice with Hitler and Mussolini, which came into effect at midnight on 25 June. Under the terms of the agreement, Germany occupied two-thirds of France, including Paris. This number included neither the army based in the French colonial empire nor the French fleet.
In Africa the Vichy regime was permitted to maintain , Neither did Hitler accept that France could ever become a full military partner,  and constantly prevented the buildup of Vichy's military strength.
After the armistice, relations between the Vichy French and the British quickly worsened. Though Churchill defended his controversial decision to attack the French fleet, the action deteriorated greatly the relations between France and Britain. German propaganda trumpeted these attacks as an absolute betrayal of the French people by their former allies.
This continued to be recognised as the lawful government of France by the neutral United States until , while the United Kingdom had recognised de Gaulle's government-in-exile in London. Racial laws were introduced in France and its colonies and many foreign Jews in France were deported to Germany.
Albert Lebrun , last President of the Republic, did not resign from the presidential office when he moved to Vizille on 10 July In September , Vichy France was forced to allow Japan to occupy French Indochina , a federation of French colonial possessions and protectorates encompassing modern day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vichy regime continued to administer them under Japanese military occupation.
French Indochina was the base for the Japanese invasions of Thailand , Malaya , and the Dutch East Indies. On 26 September , de Gaulle led an attack by Allied forces on the Vichy port of Dakar in French West Africa. During the Anglo-Iraqi War of May , Vichy France allowed Germany and Italy to use air bases in the French mandate of Syria to support the Iraqi revolt. British and Free French forces attacked later Syria and Lebanon in June—July , and in Allied forces took over French Madagascar.
In response to the landings, German and Italian forces invaded the non-occupied zone in southern France and ended Vichy France as an entity with any kind of autonomy; it then became a puppet government for the occupied territories.
In the Milice , a paramilitary force which had been founded by Vichy, was subordinated to the Germans and assisted them in rounding up opponents and Jews, as well as fighting the French Resistance.
The Germans recruited volunteers in units independent of Vichy. Partly as a result of the great animosity of many right-wingers against the pre-war Front Populaire , volunteers joined the German forces in their anti-communist crusade against the USSR. The LVF then formed the cadre of the Waffen-SS Division Charlemagne in —, with a maximum strength of some 7, Both the LVF and the Division Charlemagne fought on the eastern front. British forces responded by deploying to Iraq and in turn removing Rashi Ali from power.
During fighting between Iraqi and British forces Axis forces were deployed to Iraq to support the Iraqis. Anti-British sentiments were widespread in Iraq prior to Rashid Ali was appointed Prime Minister Rashid Ali in When Italy declared war on Britain, Rashid Ali had maintained ties with the Italians. This angered the British government. In December , as relations with the British worsened, Rashid Ali formally requested weapons and military supplies from Germany. In April Rashid Ali, on seizing power in a coup, repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of and demanded that the British abandon their military bases and withdraw from the country.
On 9 May , Mohammad Amin al-Husayni , the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem associate of Ali and in asylum in Iraq, declared holy war  against the British and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against British rule.
On 25 May , the Germans stepped up offensive operations in the Middle East. Hitler issued Order 30 : "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England.
In this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq I have therefore decided to move forward in the Middle East by supporting Iraq. Hostilities between the Iraqi and British forces began on 2 May , with heavy fighting at the RAF air base in Habbaniyah.
The Germans and Italians dispatched aircraft and aircrew to Iraq utilizing Vichy French bases in Syria; this led to Australian, British, Indian and Free French forces entering and conquering Syria in June and July. With the advance of British and Indian forces on Baghdad, Iraqi military resistance ended by 31 May Rashid Ali and the Mufti of Jerusalem fled to Iran, then Turkey, Italy, and finally Germany, where Ali was welcomed by Hitler as head of the Iraqi government-in-exile in Berlin.
Various nominally-independent governments formed out of local sympathisers under varying degrees of German, Italian, and Japanese control were established within the territories that they occupied during the war. Some of these governments declared themselves to be neutral in the conflict with the allies, or never concluded any formal alliance with the Axis powers, but their effective control by the Axis powers rendered them in reality an extension of it and hence part of it.
These differed from military authorities and civilian commissioners provided by the occupying power in that they were formed from nationals of the occupied country, and that the supposed legitimacy of the puppet state was recognised by the occupier de jure if not de facto.
The collaborationist administrations of German-occupied countries in Europe had varying degrees of autonomy, and not all of them qualified as fully recognized sovereign states. The General Government in occupied Poland was a fully German administration. In occupied Norway , the National Government headed by Vidkun Quisling — whose name came to symbolize pro-Axis collaboration in several languages — was subordinate to the Reichskommissariat Norwegen.
It was never allowed to have any armed forces, be a recognized military partner, or have autonomy of any kind. In the occupied Netherlands , Anton Mussert was given the symbolic title of "Führer of the Netherlands' people".
His National Socialist Movement formed a cabinet assisting the German administration, but was never recognized as a real Dutch government. After the Italian armistice, a vacuum of power opened up in Albania. Albanians in the Italian army joined the guerrilla forces. In September the guerrillas moved to take the capital of Tirana , but German paratroopers dropped into the city. Soon after the battle, the German High Command announced that they would recognize the independence of a greater Albania.
The Germans did not exert heavy control over Albania's administration, but instead attempted to gain popular appeal by giving their political partners what they wanted. The joint forces incorporated Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, and Presevo into the Albanian state. A High Council of Regency was created to carry out the functions of a head of state, while the government was headed mainly by Albanian conservative politicians. Albania was the only European country occupied by the Axis powers that ended World War II with a larger Jewish population than before the war.
They provided Jewish families with forged documents and helped them disperse in the Albanian population. It was appointed by the German Military Commander in Serbia and operated from 29 August to October The Government of National Salvation was evacuated from Belgrade to Kitzbühel , Germany in the first week of October before the German withdrawal from Serbia was complete. Racial laws were introduced in all occupied territories with immediate effects on Jews and Roma people, as well as causing the imprisonment of those opposed to Nazism.
Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced to be free of Jews Judenfrei.
On 1 April , a Serbian Gestapo was formed. However the Banjica Concentration Camp was jointly run by the German Army and Nedic's regime. Serbia became the second country in Europe, following Estonia, to be proclaimed Judenfrei free of Jews. Approximately 14, Serbian Jews — 90 percent of Serbia's Jewish population of 16, — were murdered in World War II. He died on 4 February after either jumping or falling out of the window of a Belgrade hospital, under circumstances which remain unclear.
Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III on 25 July After the Italian armistice, in a raid led by German paratrooper Otto Skorzeny , Mussolini was rescued from arrest. Once restored to power, Mussolini declared that Italy was a republic and that he was the new head of state. He was subject to German control for the duration of the war. Following the German invasion of Greece and the flight of the Greek government to Crete and then Egypt, the Hellenic State was formed in May as a puppet state of both Italy and Germany.
Initially, Italy had wished to annex Greece, but was pressured by Germany to avoid civil unrest such as had occurred in Bulgarian-annexed areas.
The result was Italy accepting the creation of a puppet regime with the support of Germany. Italy had been assured by Hitler of a primary role in Greece. The puppet regime never commanded any real authority, and did not gain the allegiance of the people. It was somewhat successful in preventing secessionist movements like the Vlach "Roman Legion" from establishing themselves. By mid, the Greek Resistance had liberated large parts of the mountainous interior "Free Greece" , setting up a separate administration there.
After the Italian armistice, the Italian occupation zone was taken over by the German armed forces, who remained in charge of the country until their withdrawal in autumn In some Aegean islands, German garrisons were left behind, and surrendered only after the end of the war.
The Empire of Japan created a number of client states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in These puppet states achieved varying degrees of international recognition.
The Kingdom of Kampuchea was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from 9 March to 15 August The Japanese entered the French protectorate of Cambodia in mid, but allowed Vichy French officials to remain in administrative posts while Japanese calls for an "Asia for the Asiatics" won over many Cambodian nationalists.
In March , in order to gain local support, the Japanese dissolved French colonial rule and pressured Cambodia to declare independence within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Son Ngoc Thanh who had fled to Japan in returned in May and was appointed foreign minister.
When the Allies occupied Phnom Penh in October, Son Ngoc Thanh was arrested for collaborating with the Japanese and was exiled to France. The Arzi Hukumat-e- Azad Hind , the "Provisional Government of Free India" was a state that was recognized by nine Axis governments, and accepted as part of the axis by the Japanese. It was led by Subhas Chandra Bose , an Indian nationalist who rejected Mahatma Gandhi 's nonviolent methods for achieving independence.
The First Indian National Army faltered after its leadership objected to being a propaganda tool for Japanese war aims, and the role of Japanese liaison office. It was revived by the Indian Independence League with Japanese support in after the ex-PoWs and Indian civilians in South-east Asia agreed to participate in the INA venture on the condition it was led by Bose. From occupied Singapore Bose declared India's independence on October 21, The Indian National Army was committed as a part of the U Go Offensive.
It played a largely marginal role in the battle, and suffered serious casualties and had to withdraw with the rest of Japanese forces after the siege of Imphal was broken.
It was later committed to the defence of Burma against the Allied offensive. It suffered a large number of desertions in this latter part. The remaining troops of the INA maintained order in Rangoon after the withdrawal of Ba Maw's government. The provisional government was given nominal control of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from November to August Mengjiang was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia.
It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub , a Mongol nobleman descended from Genghis Khan , but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military. Mengjiang's independence was proclaimed on 18 February , following the Japanese occupation of the region. The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, including their policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to the region.
Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union. Japan created Mengjiang to exploit tensions between ethnic Mongolians and the central government of China, which in theory ruled Inner Mongolia. When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Jingwei government in March , Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation.
Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army, which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own independent army. Mengjiang vanished in following Japan's defeat in World War II. French Indochina, including Laos, had been occupied by the Japanese in , though government by the Vichy French colonial officials had continued.
The liberation of France in , bringing Charles de Gaulle to power, meant the end of the alliance between Japan and the Vichy French administration in Indochina.
French control over Laos was re-asserted in After the surrender of the Filipino and American forces in Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor Island , the Japanese established a puppet state in the Philippines in He was granted amnesty by President Manuel Roxas , and remained active in politics, ultimately winning a seat in the post-war Senate.
The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from 11 March to 23 August When the Japanese seized control of French Indochina , they allowed Vichy French administrators to remain in nominal control.
This French rule ended on 9 March , when the Japanese officially took control of the government. On 7 December , Japan attacked the US naval bases in Pearl Harbor , Hawaii. According to the stipulation of the Tripartite Pact , Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy were required to come to the defense of their allies only if they were attacked. Since Japan had made the first move, Germany and Italy were not obliged to aid her until the United States counterattacked.
Historian Ian Kershaw suggests that this declaration of war against the United States was a serious blunder made by Germany and Italy, as it allowed the United States to join the war in Europe and North Africa without any limitation. Roosevelt had said in his Fireside Chat on 9 December that Germany and Italy considered themselves to be in a state of war with the United States. Hitler declaring war on the United States on 11 December Italian pilots of a Savoia-Marchetti SM. German and Japanese direct spheres of influence at their greatest extents in Autumn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Rome-Berlin Axis. Alliance of countries in World War II. For the book, see The Rome-Berlin Axis. For other uses, see Axis disambiguation. Axis powers and their colonies or puppets Allies and their colonies Allies entering after the attack on Pearl Harbor Neutral powers. Major Axis powers [a] German Reich Kingdom of Italy [b] Empire of Japan. Other Axis powers Kingdom of Hungary [c] [d] Kingdom of Romania [c] Slovak Republic [c] [e] Kingdom of Bulgaria [c] Independent State of Croatia [c] [e] Republic of Finland [f] Kingdom of Thailand [g].
See e. Core tenets. Palingenetic ultranationalism Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Racism Dictatorship Anti-communism Anti-intellectualism Anti-pacifism Chauvinism Conspiracism Direct action Social interventionism Social order Indoctrination Irrationalism Machismo Perpetual war Propaganda Populism Syncretism Traditionalism Heroism Economic interventionism Statolatry New Man Reactionary modernism.
Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism. Totalitarianism Authoritarian democracy Class collaboration Corporatism Eugenics Authoritarian capitalism Heroic capitalism Integral nationalism National capitalism National syndicalism Proletarian nation State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position. Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference. March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Aventine Secession Pacification of Libya Mukden Incident German election of Enabling Act Austrian Civil War Second Italo-Ethiopian War Spanish Civil War Marco Polo Bridge Incident Anti-Comintern Pact Italian invasion of Albania World War II The Holocaust Downfall in Italy Downfall in Germany Downfall in Japan.
Fascists by country. Related topics. Alt-right Anti-fascism Culture of fear Fascist epithet Glossary of Fascist Italy Supremacism. Main articles: Anti-Comintern Pact , Tripartite Pact , and Pact of Steel. Main articles: Nazi Germany , Greater Germanic Reich , and Flensburg Government.
Further information: Areas annexed by Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. Main articles: Fascist Italy , Latin Bloc proposed alliance , and Military history of Italy during World War II.
Main articles: Italian Empire and Italian imperialism under Fascism. Main article: Empire of Japan.
Main article: Japanese colonial empire. See also: Croatian—Romanian—Slovak friendship proclamation. Main article: Military history of Bulgaria during World War II. Main articles: Hungary during World War II and Government of National Unity Hungary. Main article: Independent State of Croatia. Main articles: Slovak Republic — and Slovak invasion of Poland.
Main article: Wang Jingwei regime. Main article: Occupation of Denmark. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II. Main article: Manchukuo. Main article: Spain in World War II. Main articles: Japanese occupation of Burma , State of Burma , and Burma National Army. See also: Thailand in World War II. See also: Germany—Soviet Union relations before , German—Soviet Axis talks , Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , and Soviet invasion of Poland.
Main article: Vichy France. Main article: Anglo-Iraqi War. Main article: Albanian Kingdom — Main articles: Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia and Government of National Salvation. Main article: Italian Social Republic.
Main articles: Axis occupation of Greece and Hellenic State — Further information: Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Main article: Japanese occupation of Cambodia. Main articles: Indian National Army and Azad Hind. Main article: Mengjiang. Main articles: Japanese occupation of the Philippines and Second Philippine Republic.
Main article: Empire of Vietnam. See also: Germany—Japan industrial co-operation before World War II. Germany portal Italy portal Japan portal World War II portal. Britannica Group, inc. Retrieved 11 February Vokabular des Nationalsozialismus. Berlin: De Gruyter. ISBN Retrieved 26 March History of World War II: Volume 1 - Origins and Outbreak. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved 28 October Journal of Global History.
Encyclopedia of World War II A Political, Social and Military History. Retrieved 13 February Global strategy : from its genesis to the post-cold war era. Vista Books. Watt, "The Rome—Berlin Axis, — Myth and Reality", The Review of Politics , 4 , pp.
Common Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Cambridge University Press, Mussolini and His Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, — Germany and the Second World War. Oxford University Press, James Burgwyn.
Italian foreign policy in the interwar period, — Wesport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Nazi Foreign Policy, — The Road to Global War. London, England: Routledge, Is Tomorrow Hitler's? Origins of Second World War Reconsidered: A. Taylor and Historians. Digital Printing edition. Routledge, Austrian Foreign Policy in Historical Context.
New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers, Rethinking Japan. Axis Imperialism in the Second World War. A History of Fascism, — Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, Lamm, Stephen J. The World's Great Speeches: Fourth Enlarged Edition.
Europe, — The Shaping of the Nazi State. Zeszyty Muzeum, 3. PL ISSN The Great Powers and Poland: From Versailles to Yalta. Hague Yearbook of International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, German Diplomatic Relations — The Wilhelmstrasse and the Formulation of Foreign Policy. Documents and Cases, Volumes 1—2. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, Rulers And Victims: The Russians in the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press, p.
First paperback edition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, A Changing of the Guard: Anglo-American Relations, — University of North Carolina Press, Fascist Italy. Manchester, England; New York, New York, USA: Manchester University Press. Study of Crisis.
University of Michigan Press, Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, — Westport, Connecticut, USA: Praeger Publishers, The Last European War: September — December War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, — Occupation and Collaboration. Mitcham : Rommel's Desert War: The Life and Death of the Afrika Korps.
Stackpole Books, Hitler's Malta Option: A Comparison of the Invasion of Crete Operation Merkur and the Proposed Invasion of Malta Nimble Books LLC, Mussolini and Fascism. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Yale University Press, Last accessed 14 Februari The Thought War: Japanese Imperial Propaganda. University of Hawaii Press, p. Pearl Harbor Reexamined: Prologue to the Pacific War. University of Hawaii Press, Japan's sea lane security, — a matter of life and death?
Oxon, England; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, The Pacific War: From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima. Osprey Publishing, Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan ch.
Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, — Psychology Press, Die Bezeichnung Achsenmächte geht auf eine Rede Benito Mussolinis am 1. Oktober ein geheimer Freundschaftsvertrag zwischen Italien und dem Deutschen Reich vorausgegangen war. Die Achse war in erster Linie ein Element der Propaganda beider Länder.
Auch nachdem sie mit dem Stahlpakt zu einem Militärbündnis ausgeweitet worden war, kam es kaum zu einer konkreten Zusammenarbeit. Mai in Berlin unterzeichnet. In der Praxis zeigte sich bald, dass die militärische und rüstungspolitische Zusammenarbeit zwischen Berlin und Rom trotz des Paktes von einem Konkurrenzverhältnis geprägt war — was die Forschung unter dem Schlagwort "Kooperation als Machtkampf" zusammengefasst hat.
Es gelang nicht, die potentielle Kraft, welche die Koalition im Grunde bot, zum Einsatz zu bringen. Mythos und Realität des Bündnisses klafften radikal auseinander. Mit den italienischen Niederlagen drängten sich diese Mängel zunehmend in den Vordergrund. Am September schlossen die Achsenmächte den Dreimächtepakt :.
Kurzzeitig erhielt der Vorname Roberto eine neue Bedeutung als Akronym von Ro m- Ber lin- To kio. Zuletzt betonten Achsenvertreter damit am Januar ihre Partnerschaft und prägten diese Losung. Im Selbstverständnis von US-Präsident Franklin D. Diesem Vertrag zwischen den Achsenmächten Deutschland, Italien und Japan vom September schlossen sich kurz darauf eine Reihe weiterer europäischer Länder an. Ungarn , Rumänien und die Slowakei traten noch bei, Bulgarien Jugoslawien unterzeichnete zwar am März den Dreimächtepakt, ratifizierte diesen aber nach dem Staatsstreich vom März nicht und wurde im Balkanfeldzug von den Achsenmächten zerschlagen.
Der daraufhin gebildete Unabhängige Staat Kroatien trat im Juni dem Pakt bei. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs war Achsenmächte die Bezeichnung für alle mit dem Deutschen Reich verbündeten Staaten. Kroatien war Mitglied des Antikominternpakts und befand sich bis zum Kriegsende am 8. Mai mit Deutschland in einem umfassenden Militärbündnis. Die Finnen bezeichnen sich ungern als ehemalige Verbündete des Deutschen Reichs. Finnland beteiligte sich am deutschen Überfall auf die Sowjetunion. Finnisches Territorium durfte von der Wehrmacht als Aufmarschgebiet genutzt werden und die finnische Armee wurde gegen die sowjetischen Truppen mobilgemacht.
Der Name dieses sogenannten Fortsetzungskriegs spielt auf den finnisch-sowjetischen Winterkrieg an. Finnland wollte im Fortsetzungskrieg die im vorangegangenen Winterkrieg verlorenen Territorien zurückgewinnen und auch Ost-Karelien erobern.
Die Bombardierung finnischer Städte durch sowjetische Streitkräfte diente dann am Juni als Begründung für die finnische Kriegserklärung und den Beginn der finnischen Offensive.
Dezember ebenfalls den Krieg. Finnland schloss sich nie dem Dreimächtepakt an, unterzeichnete allerdings den Antikominternpakt. Finnland lehnte es ab, seine Streitkräfte unter das Kommando eines gemeinsamen deutsch-finnischen Hauptquartiers zu stellen und bewahrte seine operative Unabhängigkeit. So wurde etwa die Teilnahme an der Leningrader Blockade und am Angriff auf die Murmanskbahn bei Louhi verweigert.
Nachdem die Offensive mit Hilfe der deutschen Waffenlieferungen abgewehrt war, wechselte Finnland zu den Alliierten und ging unter sowjetischem Druck im Lapplandkrieg zum Angriff auf deutsche Streitkräfte über. Präsident Risto Ryti , der sein persönliches Ehrenwort für die Einhaltung des Bündnisses gegeben hatte, trat daraufhin von seinem Amt zurück. Sein Nachfolger im Amt, Präsident Mannerheim , erklärte Rytis Abkommen mit den Deutschen für nichtig.
Nach Kriegsende drängte die Sowjetunion auf ein Gerichtsverfahren gegen Ryti und einige seiner Kabinettsmitglieder. Nach den Erfahrungen der deutschen Besatzung, die Belgien im Ersten Weltkrieg über sich ergehen lassen musste, war die gesamte Nation beim Gedanken an eine zweite deutsche Besatzung entsetzt, insbesondere, da die belgische Delegation bei der Pariser Friedenskonferenz wenig Einfluss hatte — auch wenn Belgien bei den Reparationen keineswegs zu kurz gekommen war.
Synonyms: bloc. Synonyms: axis vertebra. Synonyms: axis of rotation. Axis n.
Rome-Berlin Axis Article about Rome-Berlin Axis by The ...
Rome-Berlin Axis a military and political alliance between fascist Germany and Italy, formalized by the Berlin Agreement of Oct. 25, 1936. The creation of the axis attested to the open preparation of the fascist states for the unleashing of World War II.
01/11/ · Why We Call the Axis Powers the Axis Powers. On this day in , Italian dictator Benito Mussolini declared an axis between Berlin and Rome, coining a . Puterile Axei au fost națiunile care au luptat contra Aliaților în timpul celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial. Cele trei puteri principale ale Axei au fost Germania Nazistă, Italia Fascistă și Japonia imperialistă, care se numeau,,Axa Roma-Berlin-Tokyo. În perioada de apogeu, Puterile Axei controlau imperii care dominau o mare parte a Europei, Asiei și a Oceanului Pacific, însă cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial s . Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis". The simultaneous second step was the signing in November of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and ottavianelli.euical era: World War II.
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The Axis powers[nb 1] originally called the Rome—Berlin Axis was a military coalition that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.
The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Nazi Germanythe Kingdom of Italyand the Empire of Japan 1963 secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mids. The first step was the protocol signed Axe Rome Berlin 1936 Germany and Italy in October Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on Satis House Dickens on the Rome—Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis".
Italy joined the Pact in and Hungary and Spain joined in The "Rome—Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in under the so-called " Pact of Steel ", with the Tripartite Pact of leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany, Italy and Japan.
As such the Anti-Comintern Pactthe Tripartite Pactand the Pact of Steel were Romf agreements that formed the main bases of the Axis. Particularly within Europe, the term "the Axis" is still often used primarily to refer to the alliance between Italy and Germany, though outside Europe it is normally understood as including Japan. At its zenith in during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of EuropeNorth Africaand East Asia.
In contrast to the Allies,  there were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, and on occasion the interests of the major Axis powers were at variance with each other.
The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in Septemberwhen he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's Germania Repubblica Ro,e "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin" non v'ha dubbio che in questo momento l'asse 19336 storia europea passa per Berlino.
The term was used by Hungary 's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early s. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome—Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued a strategic alliance of Italy with Germany against Christina Aguilera Nackt since the early s.
Since the s Italy had identified the year as a crucial date for preparing for a war against France, as was the year when Germany's obligations under the Treaty of Versailles were scheduled to expire. The discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons and hoped that Italy could assist Germany.
However at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany: that Italy "must InAdolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in Germany. Hitler had advocated an alliance between Germany and Italy since the s. Mussolini did not trust Hitler's intentions regarding Anschluss nor Hitler's promise of no territorial claims Aloha Tube Porno South Tyrol.
In JuneHitler and Mussolini met for the first time, in Venice. The meeting did not proceed amicably. Hitler demanded that Mussolini compromise on Austria by pressuring Dollfuss to appoint Austrian Nazis to his cabinet, to which Mussolini flatly refused the demand. In response, Hitler promised that he would accept Austria's independence for the time being, saying that due to the internal tensions in Germany referring to sections of the Nazi SA that Hitler would soon kill in the Night of the Long Knives that Germany could not afford to provoke Italy.
Several weeks after the Venice meeting, on 25 JulyAustrian Nazis assassinated Dollfuss. Italy effectively abandoned diplomatic relations with Germany while turning to France in order to challenge Germany's intransigence by signing a Franco-Italian accord to protect Austrian Berlij.
Relations between Germany and Italy recovered due to Hitler's support of Italy's invasion of Ethiopia inwhile other countries condemned the invasion and advocated sanctions against Italy.
Interest in Germany and Japan in forming an alliance began when Japanese diplomat Oshima Hiroshi visited Joachim von Ribbentrop in Berlin in On learning of German—Japanese negotiations, Italy also began to take an interest in forming an alliance with Axe Rome Berlin 1936. The Tripartite Pact was signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan on 27 Septemberin Berlin. The pact was subsequently joined by Hungary 20 NovemberRomania 23 NovemberSlovakia 24 November Rone, and Bulgaria 1 March The Axis powers' primary goal 1963 territorial expansion at the expense of their neighbors.
The Axis championed a number of variants on fascismmilitarismand autarky. The Axis population in was Axe Rome Berlin 1936 United Kingdom excluding its colonies had a population of Italy and Japan lacked industrial capacity; their economies were small, dependent on international tradeexternal sources of fuel and other industrial resources. Among the three major Axis powers, Japan had the lowest per capita income, while Germany and Italy had an income level comparable to the United Kingdom.
Hitler in described the outbreak of World War II as the fault of the intervention of Western powers against Germany during its war with Poland, describing it as the result of "the European and American warmongers".
Germany justified its war against Poland on the issues of German minority within Poland and Polish opposition to the incorporation of the ethnically German-majority Free City of Danzig into Germany. While Hitler and the Nazi party before taking power openly talked about destroying Poland and were hostile to Poles, after gaining power until February Hitler tried Brutales Fisten conceal his true intentions towards Poland, and signed a year Non-Aggression Pact inrevealing his plans to only to his closest associates.
A diplomatic crisis erupted following Hitler demanding that the Free City of Danzig be annexed to Germany, as it was led by a Nazi government seeking annexation to Germany. Germany used legal precedents to justify its intervention against Poland 136 annexation of the Free City of Danzig led by a local Nazi government that sought incorporation into Germany in 24 Mars 2021 justified its invasion of the Low Countries of Belgium, Delicate Empiricism, and the Netherlands in May by claiming that it suspected that Britain and France were preparing to use the Low Countries to launch an invasion of the industrial Ruhr region of Germany.
Declarations of neutrality must be ignored". Afd Demo Hamburg Antifa invasion of the Soviet Union in involved issues of lebensraumanti-communismand Soviet foreign policy. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union inthe Ro,e regime's stance towards an independent, territorially-reduced Russia was affected by pressure beginning in from the German Army on Hitler to endorse a Russian army led by Andrey Vlasov.
After the Japanese attack on Gina Wilde Com Harbor and the outbreak Pantyhose On Tumblr war between Japan and the United States, Germany supported Japan by declaring war on the US. During the war Germany denounced the Atlantic Charter and the Lend-Lease Act that the US adopted to support the Allied powers prior to entry into the alliance, as imperialism directed at dominating and exploiting countries outside of the continental Americas.
At the end of World War I, German citizens felt that their country had been humiliated as a result of the Treaty of Versailleswhich included a war guilt clause and forced Germany to pay enormous reparations payments and forfeit territories formerly Bozena Solo by the German Empire and all its colonies.
The pressure of the reparations on the German economy led to hyperinflation during the early s. In the French occupied the Ruhr region when Germany defaulted on its reparations payments. The Nazis, under Hitler, promoted the nationalist stab-in-the-back legend stating that Germany had been betrayed by Jews Belin Communists. The party promised to rebuild Germany as a major power and create a Greater Germany that would include Alsace-Lorraine Ace, AustriaSudetenlandand other German-populated territories in Europe.
The Nazis also aimed to occupy and colonize non-German territories in Polandthe Baltic statesand the Soviet Union, as part of the Nazi policy of seeking Lebensraum "living space" in eastern Europe. Germany renounced the Versailles treaty and remilitarized the Rhineland in March Latex Bizarr had already resumed conscription and announced the existence of a German air force, the Luftwaffeand naval force, the Kriegsmarine in Germany annexed Austria inthe Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, and the Memel territory from Axe Rome Berlin 1936 in Germany then invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia increating the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the country of Slovakia.
On 23 AugustGermany and the Soviet Union signed Axe Rome Berlin 1936 Molotov—Ribbentrop Pactwhich contained a secret protocol Axe Rome Berlin 1936 eastern Europe into spheres of influence. By the end ofGermany occupied a large part of Europe and its military forces were fighting the Soviet Union, nearly capturing Moscow. However, crushing defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk devastated the German armed forces. This, combined with Western Allied landings in France and Italy Ase, led to a three-front war that depleted Germany's armed forces and resulted in Germany's defeat in Shortly after Germany annexed the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia, Slovakia declared its independence.
The new Slovak Bdrlin allied itself with Germany. The remainder of the country was occupied by German military forces and organized into the Protectorate. Czech civil institutions were preserved but the Protectorate was considered within the sovereign territory of Germany. The General Government was the name Axe Rome Berlin 1936 to the territories of occupied Poland that were not directly annexed into German provinces, but like Privat Nude Pics and Moravia was considered within the sovereign territory of Germany Brrlin the Nazi authorities.
Reichskommissariats were established in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway, designated as a colonies the "Germanic" populations of which were Roje be incorporated into the planned Greater Germanic Reich. By contrast the Reichskommissariats established in the east Reichskommissariat Ostland in the Baltics, Reichskommissariat Ukraine in the Ukraine were established as colonies for settlement by Germans. In Norway, under Reichskommissariat Norwegenthe Quisling regimeheaded by Vidkun Quislingwas installed by the Germans as a client regime during the Bsrlinwhile king Haakon VII and the legal government were in exile.
About 45, Norwegian collaborators Bwrlin the pro-Nazi party Nasjonal Samling National Unionand some police units helped arrest many Jews. However, Norway was one Tantra Koblenz the first countries where resistance during World War II was widespread before the turning point of the war in After the war, Quisling and other collaborators were executed.
Quisling's name has become an international eponym for traitor. Duce Benito Mussolini described Italy's declaration of war against the Western Allies of Britain and France in June as the Romd "We are going to war against the plutocratic and reactionary democracies of the West who have invariably hindered the progress and often threatened the very existence of the Italian people ".
In October in the aftermath of the Munich Agreement, Italy demanded concessions from France to yield to Italy in Africa. Italy entered World War II on 10 June Italy justified its intervention against Greece in October on the allegation that Greece was being used by Britain against Italy, Mussolini informed this to Hitler, saying: "Greece is one of the main points of English maritime strategy in the Mediterranean".
Italy justified its intervention against Yugoslavia in April by appealing to both Italian irredentist claims and the fact of AlbanianCroatianand Macedonian separatists not wishing to be part of Yugoslavia. The intention of the Fascist regime was to create a " New Roman Empire " in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean. In — Italy invaded Brelin annexed Ethiopia and the Fascist government proclaimed the creation of the "Italian Empire". The Axe Rome Berlin 1936 highlighted French and British weakness, exemplified by their reluctance to alienate Italy and lose her as their ally.
The limited actions taken by the Western powers pushed Mussolini's Italy towards alliance with Hitler's Germany anyway. In Italy left the League of Nations and joined the Anti-Comintern Pactwhich had been signed by Germany Latex Bondage Videos Japan the preceding year.
Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel on May Beroin was ill-prepared for war, in spite of the fact that it had continuously been involved Axw conflict sincefirst with Ethiopia in — and then in the Spanish Civil War on the side of Francisco Franco 's Nationalists. By earlyItaly was still a non-belligerent, and Mussolini communicated to Hitler that Italy was not Mariana Cordoba Tumblr to intervene soon.
By MarchMussolini decided that Tera Mystiker Guide would intervene, but the date was not yet chosen. His senior military leadership unanimously opposed the action because Italy Berlim unprepared. No raw materials had been stockpiled and the reserves it did have would soon be exhausted, Italy's industrial base was only one-tenth of Germany's, and even with supplies the Italian military was not organized to provide the equipment needed to fight a modern war of a long duration.
An ambitious rearmament program was impossible because of Italy's limited reserves in gold and foreign currencies and lack of raw materials. Mussolini ignored the negative advice. ByItaly's attempts to run an Amator Tube Sex campaign from Germany's, collapsed as a result of Deutsche Pisspornos setbacks in Greece, North Africaand Eastern Africa ; and the country became dependent and effectively subordinate to Germany.
Rme the German-led invasion and occupation Roms Yugoslavia and Greece, that had both been targets of Italy's war aims, Italy was forced to accept German dominance in the two occupied countries.
On 25 Julyfollowing the Allied invasion of SicilyKing Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini, placed him under arrest, and began secret negotiations with the Western Allies.
In order to liberate the country from the Germans and Fascists, Italy became a co-belligerent of the Allies; as result, the country descended in Civil Warwith the Italian Co-Belligerent Army Axe Rome Berlin 1936 the partisanssupported by the Allies, contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Some areas in Northern Italy were liberated from the Germans as late as May, Mussolini was killed by Communist partisans on 28 April while trying to escape to Switzerland.